Life-saving techniques require a specific sequence. Any inappropriate or sloppy movements may only worsen the victim’s medical condition. Therefore, basic first aid training is highly recommended.

CPR must be applied in case a victim is not breathing and has no heartbeat. This procedure, used to reestablish a victim’s vital signs, requires that the person’s condition be checked before any action.

► Mouth-to-mouth / Mouth-to-nose
• Tilt victims’ heads slightly backwards while keeping their mouths open to see if there is any obstruction; for example, loose dentures need to be removed. The hand on the forehead pinches the nose, and the other hand under the chin slightly opens the victim’s mouth, while keeping the chin upwards. For mouth-to-nose (if you are unable to open the victim’s mouth or if it is injured), the hand on the chin keeps the mouth closed and the thumb presses the lower lip against the upper lip.
• Cover the victim’s mouth completely (or their nose in case of mouth-to-nose) with your own.
• Give two slow, full breaths so that the chest rises (each breath may last one to one and a half seconds).
• Lift your head slightly, inhale deeply and start blowing again; check for a pulse.
• If after these two breaths, no pulse or reaction is noticed (cough, spasm, etc.), the heart probably has stopped beating: start chest compressions immediately.
• If there is a pulse but the victim is not breathing:
• Give 1 slow, full breath every 5 to 6 seconds (10 to 12 breaths per minute) until the person starts breathing.
• For a child (1 to 8 years old): perform 1 breath every 3 to 5 seconds (12 to 20 breaths per minute).

► Chest compressions
• Lay the victim on a flat surface (for instance, the floor) and kneel at their side. Find the notch where the ribs meet the sternum or breastbone (the flat bone located in the center of the chest) and position your middle and index fingers next to it.
• Put the heel of one hand on the sternum next to the fingers that found the notch.
• Position both hands, one on top of the other interlacing the fingers of both your hands.
• Push on the upper side of the lower half of this notch. With arms extended, exert pressure downward (to a depth of one and a half to two inches). To give effective chest compressions, the rescuer should push hard and fast allowing the chest to fully return to its normal position.
• Push down on the chest and perform a cycle of 30 rhythmic compressions and 2 slow, full breaths (at least 100 compressions per minute, along with 6 to 8 breaths).
• Alternate four complete cycles of chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth technique and check the pulse.
• If there is a pulse but the victim is not breathing: give 1 full breath every 5 seconds (12 breaths per minute) until the person starts breathing.
• If there is no pulse (the heart is not beating): repeat the cycle of 30 chest compressions and 2 slow, full breaths until the heart starts beating and/or until a rescue team arrives.
• For a child (1 to 8 years): keep their head tilted with one hand. With the heel of your other hand on the sternum, exert pressure. Perform 30 rhythmic compressions and 2 slow, full breaths. Repeat the sequence for 10 cycles before checking for pulse and breathing.


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